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Early Middle Chinese Pinyin | version 2

V2 introduces a few simplifications over V1 in hopes of producing a more elegant orthography.

The romanization aims for conciseness and complete representation of the QY system. We can categorize syllables into six types:

Front Vowel

Front vowel with reflexes of Old Chinese /r/

Back Vowel

Syllable Type B




Syllable Type A

Div. IV

Div. II

Div. I

To represent this structure, our romanization scheme is as follows:

  • Syllable Type A is shown by capitalizing the first letter.

  • Column 1 uses a dot over the main vowel.

  • Column 2 employs a dot under the main vowel.

  • Column 3 is indicated by the absence of these marks.

  • Medial /w/ is depicted as “u” and omitted after labial initials.

  • Voicing is signified by a line under the initial letter.

  • Tone marking is now placed at syllable ends rather than above the main syllable. This change addresses font support issues, aesthetic preferences, and more intuitively reflects syllable-type based tone categories in Middle Chinese, as opposed to just pitch variations. Rising tone is now marked by an apostrophe (') at the end of the syllable, while falling tone is marked by a period (.).

Sample text

君不見 黃河之水天上來 奔流到海不復回 君不見 高堂明鏡悲白髮 朝如青絲暮成雪
guın bu Gėn. H̱uang H̱a jı xuii' Tėn j̱ang. Lei Ben lu Dao. Hei' bu ḇu. H̱uei
 guın bu Gėn. Gao Ḏang mẹng gẹng. bı̣i Ḇạg bed drẹo ṅe Cėng sı Mo. j̱ėng suėd

Jan 1, 2024, Revised Feb 13, 2024

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